Thursday, November 20, 2014

The Move to Application Based Assessment





As School Psychologists we have front row seats to watching technology shape the future of learning, but how is this change impacting our scope of practice?  

For students, several districts in the area employ the use of tablets for learning, and some have made the transition to technology so vast that they provide a tablet for each child. For School Psychologists, we have slowly moved away from hand scoring to computer based scoring, and even to online rating scales. Who wants to spend an hour half hand scoring a 150 question rating scale when you can spend 15 seconds running a full online report? There is no doubt that technology has the capacity to increase the efficiency of our jobs, but there is a big difference between using online behavior rating scales and creating a full shift to application-based testing.  

There has been a lot of buzz lately about our assessment tools becoming available through an application called Q-interactive. Pearson assessments created Q-Interactive with the promise to eliminate the need for chunky test kits. As someone who welcomes technology with open arms, I immediately researched the program, attended a training, and began using it. It was promptly apparent that while Pearson still has some work to do, there is potential for an abundance of benefits to evaluators. The two leading issues I encountered with the actual use of Q-Interactive were simple technical glitches  (as with any technology, sometimes it just doesn't work and you can’t figure out why), and the time commitment it takes to learn.

Although I knew and understood that administering subtests on the iPad would be different, I still had this senseless expectation that it would remain somewhat automatic and effortless. When I attempted to administer a subtest on the iPad for the first time, one that I have given countless times the traditional way, I found it to be uncomfortable and confusing. I was relearning HOW to administer assessments and essentially attempting to break old habits to learn new ones, which is not what I expected. Just as with learning anything new, after practice it does start to come with ease. However, the obstacle Pearson is faced with is whether or not assessors are able and/or are willing to take the time to relearn the way they administer tests.

The Trainers of School Psychologists – New York (TSP-NY) recently released an open letter to Pearson Assessments indicating 4 major concerns associated with the use of Q-Interactive: 1) Cost prohibitive for graduate programs and students, 2) Cost prohibitive for practitioners and school districts, 3) Confidentiality of assessment data, and 4) Limited research to support validity and reliability of assessments administered using Q-Interactive. The last two points are consistent concerns indicated by users of this assessment trend. However, I don’t necessarily agree with the concerns regarding cost, as the cost effectiveness of the program is highly situational at this point. Many districts already provide iPads to their students and employees, many practitioners already utilize application-based technology for their business, and everyone else will eventually move toward technology, as its future in education is inevitable. With the high cost of traditional test kits, many districts could save money purchasing the yearly license for Q-Interactive and paying per subtest use, as an alternative to ordering several test kits and paper protocols. They also offer graduate student access options for school psychologist training programs.

Overall, I am impressed with the initial release of Q-Interactive, as the need to work out kinks should be expected. While the shift to application-based testing will be a gradual one, I anticipate traditional assessment tools to remain a key part of our evaluation process. There are benefits and downfalls to both traditional and application-based assessments. So, why not use both to your advantage? Based on my experience and use of Q-Interactive over the past several months, I created a quick pros and cons list for those contemplating the shift:

Pros: Has potential to be time effective; lessens need for big test kits/uses less space; using an iPad for assessments can be highly motivating for children; Can be cost effective long term in some situations; Charged per subtest rather than pay for entire protocol (great for cross-battery assessment); Once you purchase a full yearly license, it includes all future test kits added to Q-Interactive; Access to full manuals online.

Cons: Several questions about confidentiality of data; Currently there is limited research for assessments given on iPad; Is cost prohibitive short term; Can be cost prohibitive long term in some situations; Requires large time commitment to learn; Technical glitches; Currently only available on the iPad.

By,

Ashley Smithey

Friday, December 6, 2013

Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, an introduction



This is both my area of interest and expertise, so you can expect several blogs in the future focusing on aspects of this disability targeting an audience with varying knowledge levels. This particular blog is to be considered an introduction and focuses on characteristics, risk factors, and cultural/economic factors with more in depth topics to come. 

Although the legal educational term is Emotional Disturbance (ED), these students are often referred to as having Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) due to the substantial impact their behaviors have on their education as well as the link between behaviors and disorders described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fifth edition (DSM-5). These terms will be considered interchangeable in my posts. Although we do not diagnose from the DSM-5 in the educational world, it is necessary knowledge for educators considering students who are identified as ED often obtain clinical diagnoses, including: Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, Major Depressive Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, and Adjustment Disorder. 

Why jump right into EBD? Through direct observation and research, I have found that students with EBD are among the most difficult for teachers to serve. These students simply have needs that not only go beyond the traditional training of an educator, they often quickly exhaust resources readily available on a public school campus, and they are frequently placed in self-contained classrooms that can become warehouses for their behavior rather than remediation and reentry in to general education. Simply put, serving students with EBD in the most appropriate way possible calls for a more proactive than reactive model, which I will present in later posts;)


Characteristics
Students with EBD display a wide range of characteristics with a disproportionate representation of African American students and males. Overall, they are identified later than students with other disabilities and are placed in settings with more restrictions. Studies suggest that students with EBD display worse social, behavioral, and academic outcomes than any other disability category (Yell, M., Meadows, N., Drasgow, E., & Shriner, J., 2009). Students with EBD have among the lowest graduation rates and college attendance (Kaufman, 2001). 



Tips: Common Characteristics of EBD
·      Cognitive abilities in the average to above average range
·      Performance in school much lower than ability suggests
·      Comorbid conditions such as ADHD, Learning Disabilities, and Language Deficits
·      Higher rates of grade retention
·      Higher rates of school dropout
·      Often rejected by peers and adults
·      Common problem behaviors- without effective intervention, these often increase
·                  Assaultive (hitting, kicking, biting)
·                  Self-injurious (scratching, cutting, hitting)
·                  Property damage (breaking/throwing objects)
·                  Defiance (non-compliance, work refusal, verbal protests)
·                  Eloping (leaving designated area without permission, running from staff or off campus)



Risk Factors
            Research has not been able to show a direct cause of EBD, but there are clear relationships found between students who become identified and environmental factors that educators should become aware of. Risk factors can change based on the varying stages of development and the chances of EBD increase with an abundance of risk factors present. In order to predict and prevent behavior problems, we must first understand the risk factors associated with them.

Tips: Risk Factors for EBD
·      Internal: concentration problem, hyperactivity, restlessness, risk taking, poor social skills/no or limited peer groups, early involvement in antisocial behavior, and poor problem solving skills
·      Family: parental criminality, harsh/ineffective parenting, lack of parental involvement, family conflict, child abuse/neglect, rejection by parents, and poverty
·      School: absence of clear rules and policies regarding behavior and low rates of praise
·      Community: high crime neighborhoods, high turnover of residents, few adults to supervise and monitor behavior 




Cultural and Ecological Factors
            A student’s environment and culture should always be considered when looking at problem behavior as a possible disability in the area of Emotional Disturbance. The student could have endured a traumatic event or have reoccurring stressors in their environment, such as violence in the home. In this case, the behaviors observed in the school setting may be protective in nature, which is not a disability. There are cultural groups that are over represented under the ED category, most often African Americans. Educators must take a special consideration to students of differing cultures than their own when looking at problem behavior. It is important to remember that what is inappropriate in one culture, may actually be normal in another. For example, close proximity when speaking to someone, level of eye contact, loud speaking, and tone when speaking.

Tips: Cautions when considering cultural influences on behavior patterns
·      Some behaviors are demonstrated more so in some cultures than in others, but all behaviors are found in all cultural groups
·      Individuals within a particular culture display the traditional traits and cultural markers of that group to varying degrees… from “not at all” to “exclusively and intensely”.  These variations can be due to ethnic group differences with the larger culture, socio-economic status, degree of acculturation to the mainstream society, gender, religion, and myriad other factors.
·      If a student displays a behavior that is common and accepted within his/her cultural group, it should be viewed as “a difference” from the ways of the mainstream society that are promoted in the schools; NOT as a “deficiency” or “disorder”.